Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952453 | Print ISBN: 9780761930297 | Online ISBN: 9781412952453| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted from approximately 3000 BC until the date of the last known hieroglyphic inscription in 395 AD. Though many cultures invaded and at times ruled Egypt, its character survived largely the same until the Roman Period, and many aspects of ancient Egyptian civilization remained through the Coptic Period. Egypt did not attain international prominence until the time of the Old Kingdom (ca. 2686–2125 BC) and increased in power until its height of the New Kingdom (ca. 1550–1069 BC), when its empire stretched from present-day Sudan to the Euphrates River and eastern Turkey. The fortunes of Egypt have always been intertwined with the Nile River and its canals, along with expeditions to gain precious resources in remote neighboring regions. Egyptology as a discipline did not fully develop until Jean-François Champollion's decipherment of ancient Egyptian in 1822, and since then, it has dealt with all aspects of ancient Egypt, ...