Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950565 | Print ISBN: 9780761928201 | Online ISBN: 9781412950565| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Alcohol Use and Disorders among Youth
The use of alcohol is a common experience among youth, with recent national survey data indicating rates of lifetime use of alcohol at 78% for 12th graders (high school seniors), 65% for 10th graders, and 47% for 8th graders. Recent economic analyses have indicated that alcohol consumption among underage drinkers (defined as age 12–20 years) accounted for almost 20% of consumer expenditures for alcohol in the United States and that the cost associated with underage drinking was approximately $53 billion per year (Foster, Vaughan, Foster, & Califano, 2003). The cost was estimated on the basis of negative consequences associated with drinking, including alcohol-related traffic crashes, violent crime, suicide attempts, and alcohol poisonings (Levy, Miller, & Cox, 1999). Although alcohol use increases rapidly in early and middle adolescence relative to earlier phases in the life span, it is important to note that developmentally important non-alcohol-use processes precede actual use. For example, ...