Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952576 | Print ISBN: 9780761923602 | Online ISBN: 9781412952576 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Hardiness and Health
Salvatore R. Maddi & Deborah M. Khoshaba
Hardiness is a set of attitudes and skills that promote resiliency under stressful circumstances by enhancing performance, leadership, morale, and health (e.g., Maddi, 2002). The HardiAttitudes ® are the 3Cs of commitment, control, and challenge (Maddi & Kobasa, 1984). Commitment is the conviction that staying involved with people and events, rather than pulling back, is the way to find meaning and value in your life. Control is the inclination to try to influence what is going on around you, rather than sink into powerlessness. Challenge is the belief that, as life is continually changing, you are most fulfilled by continuing to learn from your experiences, whether they are positive or negative, rather than by expecting easy comfort and security. In short, the HardiAttitudes provide the existential courage and motivation to work on transforming stressful circumstances from potential disasters into opportunities instead (Maddi, 2002). This transformation is accomplished through the ® ...