Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952576 | Print ISBN: 9780761923602 | Online ISBN: 9781412952576| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Heart Disease and Type A Behavior
David Krantz & Carolyn Phan Kao
In the 1950s, cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman observed that their cardiac patients were more likely to display a specific combination of behaviors called the Type A behavior pattern (TABP) in comparison to individuals without heart disease. TABP was defined as an action-emotion complex stimulated by certain environmental events, and is characterized by impatience, a tendency toward hostility and aggressiveness, and a heightened sense of time urgency. TABP was also often manifested by facial tension, rapid and impatient speech, tongue and teeth clicking, and expressed or suppressed hostility. A contrasting Type B behavior pattern was characterized by the relative lack of these behavioral characteristics and the tendency toward more relaxed behavior. Two general methods have been used to assess the presence or absence of TABP: structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. The Structured Interview (SI) method developed by Rosenman and Friedman, and a subsequent videotaped Structured Interview (VSI), are considered ...