Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952576 | Print ISBN: 9780761923602 | Online ISBN: 9781412952576| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Psychosocial Aspects and Behavioral Treatments
Charles F. Emery
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, with annual health care costs of approximately $27 billion. Patients with COPD frequently have concomitant symptoms of psychological distress, especially depression and anxiety, and may exhibit deficits in cognitive functioning, as demonstrated on standard neuropsychological tests. In addition, patients with COPD often experience reduced quality of life, reflected by impaired social relationships, diminished work performance, and reduced capacity for performing activities of daily living (ADL). Psychosocial aspects of COPD also may include smoking cessation, maintenance of nutritional balance, and medication compliance. Medical treatment of COPD includes medications, surgery, and physical exercise. Patients with COPD are routinely treated with multiple medications, such as bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, oral steroids, and oxygen. Surgical treatments, including lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplant surgery, are also options for selected patients. However, the standard of care for patients with ...