Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: July 01, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963985 | Print ISBN: 9781412937207 | Online ISBN: 9781412963985| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Transitional Bilingual Education Programs
Transitional bilingual education (TBE), one of several instructional approaches used in the education of English language learners since 1968, uses both students' native language and English for content instruction, along with instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), either as part of the classroom program or as pull-out instruction. A certain percentage of time is dedicated to each language, according to time factors established by the school or school district, the needs and philosophy of the population, and the type of staffing and instructional materials available in both languages. The program typically begins with 90% first-language use, reducing the percentage after 3 or 4 years to 0%, while the second language, English, begins at 10% and gradually increases to 100%. This type of program requires that teachers are proficient in the minority or primary language and the second language (English) or that there is a team teaching arrangement with ...