Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Susan R. Hutchinson
Quantitative methodologies can be generally defined as the various procedures used to examine differences between groups and relationships between variables with respect to quantifiable phenomena. The list of potentially quantifiable phenomena is immense and includes any type of behavior, attitude, perception, Quantitative Methodologies knowledge domain, or other extant characteristic that can be measured numerically. Quantitative methodologies are applied across a variety of disciplines in the physical, biological, and social sciences and reflect contributions from the fields of statistics and measurement. Statistics include the procedures employed for summarizing numeric data and testing hypotheses, while measurement encompasses the processes used to assign meaningful numbers to the traits or variables of interest to a researcher. The types of research designs in which quantitative methods are used include true experiments (also known as completely randomized designs), quasi-experiments, and nonexperimental designs (also termed passive observational or correlational). What differs among these designs is the extent ...