Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Sexual Violence and Coercion
Libbe A. Gray
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed uniform, nonlegal definitions for sexual violence and related terms in an effort to standardize the reporting and study of these crimes. Inclusionary criteria are broad and divide these crimes into five categories, which include (1) completed nonconsensual sex acts, including penetration, to any degree, of a genital opening or anus, and sodomy, (2) attempted nonconsensual sex acts, (3) abusive sexual contact, including any intentional touching that could be construed as sexual, (4) noncontact sexual abuse, including such acts as voyeurism, harassment, and pornography, and (5) sexual violence, unspecified type. Contact is considered nonconsensual if the victim says no at any time; participates because of pressure, coercion, or intimidation; or is unable to consent because of age, intoxication, illness, being asleep, or any other disabling condition. Under a grant funded through the CDC and the National Institute of Justice, the National ...