Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Traumatic Brain Injury and Rehabilitation
Joseph F. Rath & Timothy R. Elliott
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) refers to damage to the brain caused by external physical force. It is the leading cause of long-term disability in young adults. Approximately 1.5 million Americans survive brain injuries each year, and an estimated 70,000 to 90,000 of these survivors are left with long-term impairments that interfere with their psychosocial adjustment and reintegration into the community. In the United States, an estimated five million individuals live with residual symptoms of TBI severe enough to interfere with basic activities of daily living. TBI is most prevalent under age 24 and more than twice as common among men as among women. TBI differs from other types of brain damage in its noncongenital and nondegenerative etiology and sudden occurrence during the course of normal health and development. Nearly half of all TBI occurs as a result of motor vehicle accidents; other common causes include falls, assault, and sporting accidents. ...