Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Aussei F. Dooboy & Daniel L. Clay
Bullying is a problem that threatens the well-being of children and adolescents across the world; estimates are that up to 50% of children are perpetrators or victims. Numerous school shootings recently have been linked to bullying. Bullying has been defined in many ways, and there is some disagreement about what behaviors constitute bullying. The most widely used definition, provided by Olweus, a leading researcher, states that people are bullied when they are repeatedly exposed to negative actions from others. Olweus proposed three key components of bullying: intent to harm another person, behavior repeated over time, and imbalance in power between the bully and victim. This definition includes behaviors as diverse as physical abuse, threats of harm, teasing, social exclusion, spreading rumors, damage of property, and theft. Some believe that an imbalance of power need not be present. However, others suggest physical, psychological, or social power differences must exist to constitute ...