Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Jonathan Wai & David Lubinski
Historically, counseling psychology has emphasized cognitive constructs and measures in building models of optimal human development. The Internet and the widespread access to information from all over the globe, however, have transformed the world, making the identification and development of cognitive talent more important than ever. This entry focuses on the nature and organization of cognitive abilities; on their importance in educational settings, vocational settings, and other life contexts; and on dynamic aspects of intellectual dimensions. Most psychologists agree that cognitive abilities are arranged hierarchically (see Figure 1 ). Within this hierarchy, general intelligence, or g , constitutes the apex and reflects the common factor that underlies all cognitive abilities. Group factors (or more specific, abilities) form the next tier of the hierarchy. These include specific abilities such as verbal, mathematical, and spatial reasoning (e.g., A, B, and C, respectively, in Figure 1 ). A large number of narrow abilities ...