Howard E. A. Tinsley
Society perceives activities such as woodworking, writing, and playing a sport differently when performed as a job than when performed as a hobby. This anomaly led psychologists to question the nature of leisure. What is it that makes an activity “leisure,” and are the consequences of performing these activities as a job different from the consequences of performing these as leisure? Psychologists began the systematic study of leisure in the early 1970s. Two works influenced psychologists' study of leisure behavior. In his 1974 book The Psychology of Leisure , John Neulinger proposed that activities be distinguished based on the extent to which the activity was freely chosen and was motivated by a desire to receive intrinsic rewards (i.e., rewards that are unavoidable consequences of the act of participation). Leisure occurs when individuals freely chose intrinsically satisfying activities. Work occurs when individuals respond to behavioral constraints to achieve extrinsic rewards. Howard ...