Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Along with aging, human development occurs. Contemporary definitions characterize development as systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death. Development is implied to be predictable and continuous with pattern and order. Counseling is developmental and strength-based, and the counselor aids an individual, couple, or family through normative developmental adjustments and transitions. Because counseling is concerned with normative stresses, adjustments, and life transitions, rather than pathologies of the individual, knowledge of development is essential. The developmental process occurs at psychological, biological, and social levels. In psychological development, the perceptions of a person change, as do other mental processes. Biologically, a person's body and organs tend to decline in efficacy while aging. The social aspect of development includes interpersonal relationships and skills and roles played in the larger society. A developmental approach examines the interplay of environmental and individual factors on a person. Developmentally, a person is ...