Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Bias is defined as distortion of judgment or perception of a person or group based on the person's or group's race, religion, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, heritage, or ancestry, resulting in differential treatment in clinical work, diagnosis, and testing. The term bias has been used interchangeably with prejudice , specifically related to holding a distinct point of view or ideology. Stereotypes contribute to biases and negative perceptions of people who are different than oneself or perceived as an “outgroup.” Concurrently, individuals may use stereotypes to form biases and predict or explain behavior of members of an outgroup, although it is possible for individuals to hold biases and believe a stereotype but not apply it to certain individuals from that group. A recent decrease in biases may be attributed to social norms that promulgate politically correct attitudes and behaviors rooted in conformity rather than an authentic reduction of prejudice. Subsequently, ...