Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Michael S. Nystul & Nick Barneclo
Communication is difficult to define as it can be understood from a variety of perspectives. Dominic Infante, Andrew Rancer, and Deanna Womack suggest that communication occurs between humans when the meaning of symbols is manipulated to stimulate meaning. From this perspective, communication is important for promoting cooperation. Humans are social in nature and require cooperation if they are to get along and thrive. Communication also involves acquiring and sharing information through various venues such as the 24-hour news services, newspapers, and the World Wide Web. Ronald Adler and Neil Towne and Infante, Rancer, and Womack described several models of communication. The linear model describes communication in simple unidirectional terms—how information from a sender is communicated to a receiver. In this process, a sender encodes a message (by preparing an existing ideal for transmission) and sends the message through a channel (e.g., letter) to a receiver, who decodes (interprets) the message. ...