Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Edward A. Delgado-Romero & Billy Yarbrough
Culture is a pattern of responding to basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, family organization, religion, government, and social structures. Culture can be further described as discrete behaviors, traditions, habits, or customs that are shared and can be observed, as well as the sum total of ideas, beliefs, customs, knowledge, material artifacts, and values that are handed down from one generation to the next in a society. Cultural artifacts are the objects or products designed and used by people to meet reoccurring needs or to solve problems. Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. Cultural norms are rules that are socially enforced. Social sanctioning is what distinguishes norms from values. Values are core beliefs and practices from which people operate. Each culture possesses its own particular values, traditions, and ideals. Integrity in the application of a “value” over time ...