Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Counseling, History of
Heather M. Helm
The counseling field, though relatively new, has a rich history. It is important to note the influence of the broad field of psychology, and though much of the history of each is unique, counseling and psychology are branches of the same mental health tree. The counseling field developed from the guidance movement in response to recognition of a need for mental health and guidance counseling for individuals facing developmental milestones. This entry provides a historical context for the development of the counseling profession, the key contributors to the profession, and the development of organizations providing professional context and accountability. An overview focuses on three threads: societal changes that influenced the profession in response to human need, changes in psychological theory, and educational reform. The counseling profession developed in many ways from responses to changes in society. In the early 20th century, when counseling was first emerging, humanistic reform, with an ...