Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Ruperte M. (Toti) Perez
In its general sense, pluralism refers to the existence and validity of a variety of beliefs, values, realities, and identities. Pluralism has been used to describe the variety of beliefs and values that exist within a society (e.g., political pluralism), a discipline (e.g., scientific pluralism), or culture (e.g., cultural pluralism). In the multicultural counseling literature, pluralism refers to the existence and inclusion of all aspects of diversity (e.g., individual diversity, group diversity) within a society or culture (cultural pluralism). Pluralism carries the inherent belief that the inclusion, validation, and affirmation of multiple aspects of diversity are intrinsically valuable to the overall well-being of a group or community. The origins of pluralism as a philosophical thought can be traced to Western philosophy, with roots in early Greek philosophy. Developed in the 5th century B.C. by philosophers Empedocles and Anaxagoras, pluralistic philosophy sought to provide a different explanation for the natural world. ...