Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: June 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963978 | Print ISBN: 9781412909280 | Online ISBN: 9781412963978| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Howard E. A. Tinsley
Most entries in this encyclopedia provide detailed treatments of precise topics. This entry illuminates the relations among these topics. It summarizes the development of career counseling, the most widely used career counseling interventions, the typical settings in which career counseling occurs, important differences among clients who seek career counseling services, the focal issues examined in career counseling, and the career counseling process. The entries appearing in this encyclopedia describe these topics in greater detail. The theoretical underpinnings of career counseling were first recorded around 360 B.C. when Plato observed in The Republic that different jobs require different types of workers for optimal performance. Today we regard this as obvious; the jobs of elementary school teacher, truck driver, opera singer, and accountant each require a different set of skills and interests. Frank Parsons formalized this theory of the relation between people and jobs in the late 19th century. He wrote that ...