Pub. date: 2002 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950664 | Print ISBN: 9780761922582 | Online ISBN: 9781412950664| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Livia S. Holden
India is a federal republic with a total land area of 2.97 million square kilometers and 1.03 billion inhabitants as of 2001. About 72 percent of the Indian population lives in rural areas ( Census of India 2001), primarily in farming villages where traditional ways of life still prevail. Indian beliefs and practices about crime, justice, and punishment have been influenced by Hinduism, Islam, and Western traditions. Modern criminal law has existed in codified form following Western patterns since British colonization, beginning in the eighteenth century. Criminal jurisdiction rests with the national government and the state governments. The Indian Penal Code of 1862 (IPC), as amended after independence in 1948, and the Criminal Procedure Code of 1973 (CPC) apply, with some exceptions, to the entire territory of India (cf. PC sec. 1, and CPC ss. 1, 4, and 5) and take precedence over any state legislation. However, it is In ...