Pub. date: 2002 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950664 | Print ISBN: 9780761922582 | Online ISBN: 9781412950664| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Police Strategies and Operations
Craig D. Uchida & Shellie E. Solomon
American police departments have engaged in a variety of strategies and operations since their inception in the mid-1800s. The variation in police activities mirrors the social changes that have occurred in American society over time. This entry examines four major eras in American police systems and the types of strategies and operations that the police have engaged in over time. In the mid-1800s, the first American police departments modeled themselves after the London Metropolitan Police. Formed by Sir Robert Peel in 1829, the London Police emphasized “preventive patrol,” the notion that a police presence would alter the behavior of individuals and would be available to maintain order in an efficient manner (Miller 1977). The London Metropolitan Police was a highly centralized agency; decisions were made from the top, the agency was located in one building in London, and it was purposely removed from the direct political influence of the people. ...