Pub. date: 2002 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412950664 | Print ISBN: 9780761922582 | Online ISBN: 9781412950664| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Amy J. Benavides
Canada occupies a total area of 3,850,790 square miles and is the second largest nation in the world. It is divided into ten provinces and two territories. The population of about 29 million is settled mainly in the south and in major metropolitan areas (Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa-Hull, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, and Vancouver). Canada was colonized by France and England and is an officially bilingual nation, with about 60 percent of Canadians speaking English, 24 percent speaking French and nearly 14 percent speaking both languages. The criminal justice system reflects the influence of both the French and English cultures and legal systems. Canada's criminal law is based on the Canadian Criminal Code (1892), the first merging of common and statutory criminal law by a self-governing jurisdiction of the British Empire. Over the years numerous amendments and revisions were made, and in 1955 a totally revised Criminal Code was enacted. The ...