Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: November 23, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412959193 | Print ISBN: 9781412959186 | Online ISBN: 9781412959193| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Aschaffenburg, Gustav: German Criminology
Richard F. Wetzell
Gustav Aschaffenburg was the most important German criminologist of the first third of the 20th century. His importance derived from his authorship of the standard German survey of criminology, (Aschaffenburg, 1903; translated into English in 1913), from his work as the founding editor of the premier German-language journal of criminology and penal reform, which he edited for more than 30 years, and from his active role in the international criminological associations of the time, both in the International Union of Penal Law (Internationale Kriminalistische Vereinigung, founded 1889) and in the International Congresses of Criminal Anthropology, whose last prewar congress he hosted in Cologne in 1911. With respect to the development of criminological theory, his importance lies in shaping the most influential German response to Cesare Lombroso's theory of the born criminal by crafting an explanation of criminal behavior that combined environmental and biological factors. By training and profession, Aschaffenburg was ...