Pub. date: 2012 | Online Pub. Date: May 31, 2012 | DOI: 10.4135/9781452218458 | Print ISBN: 9781412981767 | Online ISBN: 9781452218458| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Mubarak, Hosni: 1920 to Present: Middle East
Alper Y. Dede
As the longest-serving ruler in Egypt since Muhammad 'Ali (1805–48), and one of the longest-serving presidents in the Arab world, President Hosni Mubarak survived numerous regional and international events and developments. He served as Anwar Sadat's vice president, starting in 1975, and succeeded Sadat after his assassination by radical Islamists in 1981. Mubarak took steps to ameliorate the prevailing tensions at the time by freeing most of the 1,539 political and religious leaders who were jailed by Sadat in September 1981. He reaffirmed Egypt's commitment to the 1979 peace treaty with Israel and maintained the special relations with the United States that his predecessor established but also worked to resume cooperative relations with the Soviet Union and to restore Egypt's relations with the Arab world. Mubarak started his first term in a turbulent political context that had culminated in the assassination of his predecessor. He made clear his intention to ...