Pub. date: 2012 | Online Pub. Date: May 31, 2012 | DOI: 10.4135/9781452218458 | Print ISBN: 9781412981767 | Online ISBN: 9781452218458| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Alexander the Great: Prehistory to 1200: South, Central, and West Asia
Patit Paban Mishra
The short-lived empire of Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 B.C.E.) was significant from the viewpoint of both the conquerors and the conquered. The Hellenistic world brought about transformation in society and culture stretching from Macedonia to India. The Macedonian warrior king, from his first battle at age 16, carved an empire encompassing three continents. He was the son of Philip II, King of Macedonia (r. 359–336 B.C.E.) and Olympias (375–316 B.C.E.). The illustrious scion of the Argead dynasty, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.). After the battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.E., in which Alexander had taken part, Philip completed the conquest of Greece. Two years later, Alexander became the king after the murder of his father. He inherited from Philip a powerful army, Macedonia, and the city-states of Athens, Sparta, and Thebes. In 334 B.C.E., Alexander began his conquest of Persia, which was ruled by Darius ...