Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Restructuring, of Schools
Since the mid-1950s, the United States has legislated billions of dollars to improve education and secure America's competitive edge in the modern world. The publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983 provided evidence that earlier attempts at school reform had not succeeded. In a renewed effort to correct what was wrong with American education, restructuring became the new buzzword for educators interested in boosting student performance that would link 1980s research findings with policy and practice. The focus of restructuring was to place the student at the center of the learning environment by addressing individual needs within the school organization. Innovative efforts included site-based management, interdisciplinary team teaching, flexible scheduling, and portfolio assessment. Historically, a bureaucratic model has provided the frame for the development of the nation's school system. Under this model, large comprehensive schools, especially at the secondary level, were built to offer students variety in course choice ...