Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Sally J. Zepeda
Supervision can be traced throughout the evolution of education in the United States from the enactment of the 1642 “ye olde deluder Satan Act” to the present reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, known as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The earliest forms of educational supervision were tied to religious control and then to secular interests, traced to the provisions in the Massachusetts Act of 1642, which required New Hampshire parents and masters to teach children reading, citizenship, and religion as a way to promote religious freedom, capital laws, as well as social harmony. Supervision was defined largely by religious leaders, with laymen ensuring that teachers were religiously orthodox, loyal to the civil government, and morally responsible. From approximately 1642 to 1875, schools began to take form, and supervision was characterized by observance of the school plant, pupil discipline, and teaching process by ...