Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Unions, of Teachers
Ellen J. Bernstein & Judith A. Ponticell
The lineage of teacher unions can be traced directly to industrialization and to the industrial-model school organizations that resulted. Just as trade union structures mirrored their industry counterparts, teacher unions often established structures that mirrored those of school districts. Before the industrial age, workers organized themselves largely around their work. Guilds were created to control entrance into a work group and restrict the availability of certain types of work. Trade unions regulated apprentice practices and established hiring halls. Craft unions contributed money that was used to pay members who were sick or unemployed and regulated standards in their craft by creating sanctions when members violated rules that were created by the association. However, as the hierarchical structures of factories became the norm, the organizational structures of unions changed to match the workplace. Industrial unionism took hold during the turn of the century, waned during hard economic times, and was revived ...