Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Elizabeth H. DeBray
The concept of value-added indicators of educational performance rests on the assumption that schools add value to the achievement of their pupils. Value-added indicators would measure or approximate the contribution of a school to its students' learning and achievement. Though the concept originated in the field of economics, it has been widely used in the school effectiveness literature in educational research. Value-added indicators of school effectiveness evaluate growth or progress with a given group of students on cognitive outcomes, usually reading or mathematics, during a specified time period. Therefore, panel or longitudinal data on individual students are used in their statistical derivation. Unlike average student test scores, which often cannot reveal whether a given school is serving its students effectively, value-added indicators capture the difference between a school's actual and expected performance or growth on specific outcome measures. The indicators attempt to measure school performance or the effect of school ...