School climate can be defined as the conditions and shared perceptions of organizational variables thought to affect organizational functioning, such as teacher morale and principal leadership style. There have been two major strands of school climate research, beginning with the traditional strand focusing on organizational climate. The second came later and concentrated on school social climate. Historical development of the first strand began in schools with observations by school administrators. They found that schools differed in terms of esprit de corps . H. Jerome Freiberg noted The Management of a City School , the 1908 book written by Arthur C. Perry, a school principal in Brooklyn, New York; esprit de corps, school climate, or school pride is not easily or quickly gained, but a tradition to be passed along through generations. Further development of this area of study progressed beyond observations gleaned from direct experience with schools to characterizing and ...