Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Gibbons, James Cardinal (1834–1921)
As the archbishop of Baltimore, James Cardinal Gibbons was the nominal leader of the Catholic Church in the United States from 1877 to 1921. In this capacity, he was a bridge between Roman Catholicism and American Catholic values. Gibbons also led the reform of American Catholic education from a defensive reaction to the Protestant-oriented common schools of the 19th century into a value-based response to the secular public education system of the 20th century. Born in Baltimore in July of 1834, Gibbons was taken by his parents to Ireland in 1837. He returned to the United States 10 years later and spent the next 8 years as a grocer in New Orleans. In 1855, he entered a seminary in Baltimore and became a priest in 1861. He rose through the ranks of the Church quickly and by 1868 he was the youngest bishop in the United States. After short stays ...