Samuel James Smith
The Pestalozzian movement of the 19th century represented the ideas of Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746–1827) and was based on the premise that learning occurs most effectively in an emotionally secure environment where knowledge is acquired by sense perception. Influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi introduced psychology into education and was the first to systematize the science of teaching. Though known predominantly for the object lesson, Pestalozzianism led to transformational reform of elementary schools and ushered in the teacher licensure movement. After the death of his father when Pestalozzi was only 5 years old, his mother brought him up in a loving but sheltered environment where outdoor excursions and interactions with other children were limited. His grandfather, a pastor, cultivated in him a concern for social justice, which was developed further in 1762 when he joined the Helvetic Society, a group of social activists. These early influences later impacted Pestalozzi's ...