Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Special Needs Education
Stephen B. Richards
Special education has historically evolved from dissent and reform movements, and continues to do so. Such efforts emerged early in American history and continued with limited success until the latter part of the 20th century, when organized reform movements, largely fueled by parents of children with disabilities, succeeded in ushering in sweeping changes in the American educational system. This entry discusses reform and dissent from the early period of American history through the 1990s. During this portion of American educational history, students with disabilities progressed from largely being excluded from public school programs to being included in general education classrooms and the general education curriculum. However, for much of the 20th century, physical integration into schools was more common than integration into the general education curriculum. In Europe during the 1600s and 1700s, advances were made in educating individuals with disabilities (the term individuals refers to both students and Ronald ...