Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Rachel M. B. Collopy
In education, value-added methodologies represent a collection of statistical models that endeavor to account for the contribution of schools and teachers to growth in student achievement. Interest in value-added measures is rooted in the standards and accountability movement that began in the 1980s. This entry begins with a description of value-added measures and contrasts them with static achievement indicators. Next, the history of value-added methodology is outlined. The entry ends with a discussion of the variety of valueadded methodologies. Educational policy circles borrowed the term value-added from the economics lexicon during the 1980s. In the field of economics, “value-added” refers to the additional value of a commodity beyond the value of the inputs required to create it, such as materials and energy. In education, valueadded methodologies attempt to ascertain the gains in student achievement that can be attributed to educators separate from other influences on achievement. These adjusted student achievement ...