Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Ronald G. Helms
Since the middle of the 20th century, moral education in the public schools has involved efforts to inculcate in students a given set of moral values or to encourage students to discover their own values. In an attempt to avoid “indoctrination,” several educators in the mid-1960s, such as Louis Raths, Sidney B. Simon, Leland Howe, and Howard Kirschenbaum, advocated a reform in moral education known as values clarification. These proponents asserted that students needed a system that would assist in decision making, critical thinking, and a conscious examination of their values. Simon, Howe, and Kirschenbaum sought to arm teachers with lessons that would lead to values clarification. No longer would the student live an “unexamined life.” Students as critical thinkers would focus on questions and issues such as race relations, love, sex, and material possessions. Educators of the 1960s and 1970s were prepared for a reform movement and found ways ...