Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: November 27, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412953948 | Print ISBN: 9781412928168 | Online ISBN: 9781412953948| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Dose-response is a term that describes a relationship between an exposure and the risk of an out come. A dose-response relationship is one in which increasing levels of exposure are associated with either increasing or decreasing risk of the outcome. Demonstration of a dose-response relationship is considered strong evidence for a causal relationship between the exposure and the outcome, although the absence of a doseresponse relationship does not eliminate the possibility of a causal relationship. The increase in the exposure can be in its intensity or its duration. Exposure can be characterized in different ways such as the peak exposure; the duration of exposure at or above a set level; average exposure, which is a time-weighted ...