Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: November 27, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412953948 | Print ISBN: 9781412928168 | Online ISBN: 9781412953948| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Stacie Ezelle Taylor
Statistical inference is the science of making conclusions, decisions, or inferences about a population based on information obtained in a sample. The procedure that leads to rejecting or not rejecting specific statements about a population is called hypothesis testing. If there is only one population under investigation, researchers conduct a one-sample test. If they are comparing two populations, they conduct a twosample test. Additionally, there are multisample tests (also known as k -sample tests) to consider more than two populations. A statistical hypothesis is an assumption or statement or inference regarding one or more parameters of a population distribution, or the type or nature of a population. Both the following are examples of statistical hypotheses: (1) The specificities of two diagnostic tests are the same and (2) the average score on the ABC test is 70. Statistical hypotheses are always about population parameters, while a decision to accept or reject ...