Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: April 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963879 | Print ISBN: 9781412926942 | Online ISBN: 9781412963879| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Sonia W. Soltero
In the United States, various educational program models address the needs of school-age students who are not yet fully proficient in English. Even though there is great variability in program design, there are two major distinctions: (1) bilingual programs that use the native language and English as a second language for instruction and (2) English-only programs that exclusively use English as a second language approach for instruction. Bilingual education models include transitional bilingual, heritage language, dual language or bilingual immersion, and maintenance bilingual programs. English-only models include English as a second language (ESL), newcomer center, and structured English immersion programs. For school districts, the choice of offering native language instruction versus English-only instruction to English language learners (ELLs) depends on several factors, as described in this entry. One factor is the student linguistic demographics. In some areas of the United States, the linguistic makeup of prekindergarten through Grade 12 students ...