Military, Women Serving in
This entry focuses on the gradual expansion of women's roles in the regular armed forces of sovereign states since the middle of the 19th century and on the two principal factors that have governed this expansion: national need and, after World War II, national law. Women have participated in military operations in all eras of history. A list of famous women warriors includes Artemisia, a naval commander who fought for Persia against Greece in the Battle of Salamis (480 BCE); Zenobia of Palmyra (modern Syria); and Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, in Britain, who led the people in uprisings against Roman occupation. Joan of Arc, at the head of the French Army, lifted the English siege of Orleans during the Hundred Years' War; and African warrior Queen Jinga kept the invading Portuguese at bay in the 17th century. Women were not only military commanders but foot soldiers, too. They served ...