Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: April 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963893 | Print ISBN: 9781412958783 | Online ISBN: 9781412963893| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
KAZAKHSTAN IS LOCATED in Central Asia at the center of the Eurasian continent. With 1.05 million sq. mi. (2.72 million sq. km.), the country is the ninth largest nation of the world, and the largest landlocked country of all. The population of Kazakhstan was 16.7 million in 1990, and the population density of 3.9 people per sq. mi. (6.3 people per sq. km.) is one of the sparsest in the world. 280,200 people live in the capital city of Astana. The city with the largest population is Almaty, with 1,185,900 inhabitants. The climate is continental; precipitation varies from less than 5.9 in. (150 mm.) in the central desert areas to more than 59 in. (1,500 mm.) in mountainous regions. Average temperatures in January range from minus 0.4 degrees F (minus 18 degrees C) in the north to 27 degrees F (minus 3 degrees C) in the south. Spatially averaged seasonal ...