Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952613 | Print ISBN: 9781412905794 | Online ISBN: 9781412952613| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
The bottom-up approach takes the view that policy and action cannot simply be separated; hence, policy implementation is an essentially political process. It is concerned with the dynamism that bureaucrats and street-level service providers bring to the policy process. Bottom-up approaches to governance emerged as an antidote to rationalist, prescriptive, top-down models where policy is devised by elites and mechanically implemented by passive bureaucrats and service providers. Bottom-up approaches examine the active impact of public servants on whether a policy is successfully realized and demonstrate that policy making does not stop once a policy is approved because it is continually being remade as it is administered. Conflict and bargaining, ...