Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952613 | Print ISBN: 9781412905794 | Online ISBN: 9781412952613| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Technology can be understood in the simplest terms as techniques for making and doing things. Originally derived from the Greek technos for art or craft and logos for speech or word, technology referred to the discourse on all arts. It was not until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe that technology came to be understood as the techniques by which humans strive to change or control their environment. A key differentiation to highlight is that between technology and science. Technology has its origins in the earliest efforts of humans to develop tools that were used systematically in daily practice. These efforts were not always pursued based on a clear knowledge of physical or chemical properties and expected outcomes, thus technology must be seen as separate from, and primary to, the rationalistic practices of modern science. Technology analysts argue that many techniques in the past lasted much longer than The ...