Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Christian W. Haerpfer
Democratization can be defined as two different political processes: 1. Democratization is the transformation from a nondemocratic regime to a democratic political regime. It is a transition from nondemocratic to democratic types of political regime and involves regime change. 2. Democratization is the process of political transformation from an electoral or partial democracy toward a full or consolidated democracy. It is a transition between different degrees of democracy within a specific democratic political system. This entry covers both meanings, by discussing the actors who may bring democracy, the factors of and impediments to democracy, and historical and future perspectives of democracy and the democratic trend. The main theory with emphasis on “agency,” as developed in sociological theory, is the transition approach, which was proposed by Guillermo O'Donnell and Philippe C. Schmitter (1986) and further developed by Gretchen Casper and Michelle Taylor (1996). This agency approach analyzes the process of transition ...