Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Monitoring can be defined as a systematic and continuous surveillance of a series of events. Monitoring is practiced to secure that the activities inside an organization, or the outputs of an organization, are according to established goals. Monitoring thus refers to the control of organizations. In politics, monitoring takes place both between politicians (versus bureaucrats) and within the public administration; in the latter form, it deals with organizational control. Monitoring and evaluation are closely linked; both focus on examining the procedures and processes involved and gathering information about the level of performance. In government practice, the two concepts overlap, as when, for example, the follow-up of a government program can be called either monitoring or evaluation without a major difference. It is also possible to see monitoring as a basic form of evaluation when we add some “how and why” questions, such as why a given program is lagging behind ...