Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Several definitions of values have been influential in the social sciences. For the anthropologist Clyde Kluckhohn, a value is a conception of the desirable that influences the selection of available modes, means, and ends of action. Central to this definition is the notion of “a conception of the desirable.” A desire is a wish or a preference, while the term desirable goes beyond a wish or a want by bringing in considerations of moral content. For the psychologist Milton Rokeach, a value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is preferable to opposite or converse modes of conduct or end states of existence. Rokeach's definition includes several elements that can be used as a point of departure for discussing several dimensions of the value concept. Rokeach indicated that there are two types of values: (1) consummatory (end state of existence) and (2) ...