Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 25, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952637 | Print ISBN: 9780761923879 | Online ISBN: 9781412952637| Publisher:Sage Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Chinese Legalist School
Scholars often classify early Chinese theories of law as li zhi and fa zhi Li zhi , traditionally associated with Confucianism, refers to political order predicated on and achieved primarily by reference to the li , or rites, that is, traditional customs, mores, and norms. In contrast, fa zhi , associated with Legalism, refers to political order attained primarily through reliance on fa , or laws. Confucius famously declared: “Lead the people with government regulations and organize them with penal law ( xing ), and they will avoid punishments but will be without shame. Lead them with virtue and organize them through the li , and the people will have a sense of shame and moreover will become humane people of good ...