Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952415 | Print ISBN: 9780761926498 | Online ISBN: 9781412952415 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Staci Strobl & Johanna Bjorken & Mohsen Alizadeh
Located on the Mediterranean Sea spanning the eastern part of North Africa, Egypt is one of the world's oldest civilizations, dating back to 3200 B.C. The country has an area of 1,001,450 square kilometers and a population of 74.7 million (July 2003). Egypt's population is primarily settled along the fertile Nile River Valley. Because of its strategic location at the junction of the only land bridge from Africa to Asia, and especially since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, it has also been a major transportation hub from the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean. Arabs introduced Islam and the Arabic language to the population in the 7th century. Subsequently, in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire took control of Egypt, followed by the British in 1882. Turkish and French criminal justice systems influenced Egypt's police structure until the late 19th century when the force adopted a British model. ...