Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: April 21, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412954006 | Print ISBN: 9781412949729 | Online ISBN: 9781412954006| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this handbook
Chapter 62: Careers in Transition
Careers in transition The world of careers has gone through a number of significant changes, with a major transformation in the 1980s–1990s of the 20th century. Earlier, the typical career system was organizational, highly structured, and hierarchy based. Individual progress was much due to tenure and compliance and would imply stepping up the ladder. The organization assumed the role of command and control, moving people around (a chess metaphor), but also taking care of them in a patriarchal way (family metaphor). The transition, which began in the last century, meant a shift to dynamic career environment, constant restructuring of organizations—hence breaking the traditional ladders—more focus on individualization of careers, and a change of the organizational role to enabler, supporter, and challenger. We expect this world of careers to prevail in the 21st century, and the career models discussed in this entry are presented to open the mind to the new ...