Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952651 | Print ISBN: 9781412924702 | Online ISBN: 9781412952651| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Yitzhak Fried & Caterina Snyder Lachel & Michael Hadani & Ariel Levi
Job design has generated substantial theoretical and empirical interest in the past decades. The purpose of this entry is to describe and evaluate the most significant approaches to job design. The first to undertake job design for individuals was Frederick W. Taylor, who developed the industrial engineering or scientific management approach in 1911. Taylor's approach dictated four specifications. First, work should be studied scientifically to identify the most efficient method for accomplishing tasks and allocating them among employees. Second, employee–job fit should be optimized, so that employees should be mentally and physically capable of performing their jobs but not be overqualified. Third, employee training should be based on the scientific analysis of the work and regularly monitored to ensure optimum performance. Finally, employees should be motivated with monetary bonuses. Advocates of the industrial engineering approach suggested that it would produce several positive outcomes for organizations, including an increased pool of ...