Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952651 | Print ISBN: 9781412924702 | Online ISBN: 9781412952651| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Stephen Stark & Oleksandr S. Chernyshenko
Since the early 20th century, the United States has been the foremost developer and consumer of testing technology in the world. Tests have been used widely by the U.S. military, government and civilian employers, and educational institutions to improve selection, placement, and promotion decisions. However, the pervasiveness of testing in American life, starting as early as age six, has called into question the purported benefits of testing, led to intense scrutiny of organizational decisions, and raised concerns about the general impact of testing on society. Although some of these criticisms are certainly justified, standardized tests, the most common targets of public rebuke, are among the best assessment devices available and, in our view, do not deserve the bad rap they have been given in the popular press. The term standardized tests originally referred to tests using uniform administration procedures. Over time, the term has evolved to describe tests that scores, ...